Essay on Water Scarcity in India!
While water is a renewable resource, it is at the same time a finite resource. The total quantity of water available on the globe is the same as it was two thousand years ago.
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It is important to appreciate the fact that only 3 per cent of the world’s water is fresh and roughly one-third of it is inaccessible. The rest is very unevenly distributed and the available supplies are increasingly contaminated with wastes and pollution from industry, agriculture and households.
Over the years, increasing population, growing industrialisation, expanding agriculture and rising standards of living have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and creating ground water structures such as wells. Recycling and desalination of water are other options but cost involved is very high.
However, there is a growing realisation that there are limits to ‘finding more water’ and in the long run, we need to know the amount of water we can reasonably expect to tap and also learn to use it more efficiently.
It is the human nature that we value things only when they are scarce or are in short supply. As such we appreciate the value of water once the rivers, reservoirs, ponds, wells, etc. run dry. Our water resources have now entered an era of scarcity. It is estimated that thirty years from now, approximately one-third of our population will suffer from chronic water shortages.
The increasing demands on fresh water resources by our burgeoning population and diminishing quality of existing water resources because of pollution and the additional requirements of serving our spiralling industrial and agricultural growth have led to a situation where the consumption of water is rapidly increasing and the supply of fresh water remains more or less constant.
It may be maintained that the water available to us is the same as it was before but the population and the consequent demand for water has increased manifold. The consequences of scarcity will be more drastic in arid and semi-arid regions. Water shortage will also be felt in rapidly growing coastal regions and in big cities. Several cities are already, or will be, unable to cope with the demand of providing safe water and sanitation facilities to their inhabitants.
Indicators of water stress and scarcity are generally used to reflect the overall water availability in a country or a region. When the annual per capita of renewable fresh water in a country or a region falls below 1,700 cubic metres, it is held to be situation of water stress. If the availability is below 1,000 cubic metres, the situation is labelled as that of water scarcity.
And when the per capita availability falls below 500 cubic metres, it is said to be a situation of absolute scarcity (Engelman and Roy, 1993). These are also the fundings of a study conducted by the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). This concept has been propounded by Malin Falkenmark on the premise that 100 litres a day (36.5 cubic metres a year) is roughly the minimum per capita requirement for basic household needs and to maintain good health, roughly 5 to 20 times that amount is needed to satisfy the requirement of agriculture, industry and energy.
At the time of Independence, i.e., in 1,947, the per capita availability of water in India was 6,008 cubic metres a year. It came down to 5,177 cubic metres a year in 1951 and to 1,820 cubic metres a year in 2001. According to midterm appraisal (MTA) of the 10th Plan, per capita availability of water is likely to fall down to 1,340 cubic metres in 2025 and 1,140 cubic metres in 2050.
Figure 16.6 shows the probable trends in per capita water availability for hundred years from 1947 to 2047. The problem of water shortage is further complicated when we look at the areal distribution of water resources with reference to population.
From as high as 18,417 cubic metres in the Brahmaputra valley, per capita water availability comes down to a low of 411 cubic metres in the east-flowing rivers between Pennar and Kanniyakumari. Even within the Ganga basin, the availability varies from 740 cubic metres in the Yamuna to 3,379 cubic metres in the Gandak (Chitale, 1992).
According to 2001 census figures, 77.9 per cent of India’s population had access to safe drinking water. At 90.0 per cent, urban population was better placed than 73.2 per cent of rural population. However, these figures could be misleading and the real picture emerges only when we look at the individual cities.
A survey conducted by Tata Institute of Social Science (TISS) showed 50 lakh households in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Madurai are water deficient (see Table 16.5). World Health Organisation (WHO) specifies that minimum water requirement should be 100-200 litres per day. That is way above the average urban figure, 90 litres.
TABLE 16.5 Number of Water Deficient Households:
Table 16.6 shows that several cities particularly the southern cities are most water deficient. Chennai and Bangalore suffer from 53.8 and 39.5 per cent deficiency respectively. Andhra Pradesh has too extremes: deficiency is a moderate 24.2 per cent in Hyderabad, an alarming 91.8 per cent in Vaizag. In the north, Delhi records 29.8 per cent water deficiency and Lucknow, 27.3 per cent.
Table 16.6 Demand, Supply and Deficiency of Water in Selected Cities of India in Million Litres per Day (MLD):
|Hyderabad||956||770||24.2 (least deficient)|
|Vaizag||305||159||91.8 (most deficient)|
Central India is more water-deficient than the north with wide regional variations. For example, Bhopal is 26.4 per cent water-deficient while Indore and Jabalpur record rates of 72.8 and 65.4 per cent respectively. Mumbai in the west, with deficiency rate of 43.3 per cent, is similarly situated to Kolkata which clocks at 44 per cent.
Nearly 40 per cent of water demand in urban India is met by ground water. So ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate of 2-3 metres per year. Another factor is water leakage. Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages in its 83.0 km long pipeline network. Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage.
What is Water Scarcity?
There are millions of people all over the world who don’t have access to water, or, if they have access, that water is unable to be used. About 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water and 3% of it is actually freshwater that is fit for human consumption. Around two-thirds of that is tucked in frozen glaciers and unavailable for our use. According to WWF, some 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water, and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year.
Clean drinking water is scarce and there are millions of people across this globe who spend their entire day searching for it. Yet, people who have access to safe, clean drinking water take it for granted and don’t use it wisely.
Water scarcity involves water crisis, water shortage, water deficit or water stress. Water scarcity can be due to physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity. Physical water scarcity refers to a situation where natural water resources are unable to meet a region’s demand and economic water scarcity is a result of poor water management resources.
That being said, what are the causes of water scarcity, what are the effects of water scarcity, and are there any solutions that we can start to explore? Here’s a quick look at all of those things in a bit more detail.
Children of a culture born in a water-rich environment, we have never really learned how important water is to us. We understand it, but we do not respect it.
According to Wikipedia, “Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. It already affects every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year. More than 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water.”
Causes of Water Scarcity
- Overuse of Water: Water overuse is a huge issue that a lot of people are dealing with. It may be overused on people, animals, land, or any other number of things. It may also be used for recreational activities without any care about the effects that it may have on the world around them.
- Pollution of Water: Water pollution is a huge problem, especially when you’re looking at areas that don’t necessarily have a good sewage system. Pollution can be anything from oil, to carcasses, to chemicals, and to fecal matter. No matter what it is; it makes a lot of issues for the people who may need to use it.
- Conflict: If there is conflict over an area of land, it may be difficult to access the water that is located there. In the worst case scenarios, people could end up dying if they try to access the water in these areas (due to violence). This can result in a variety of other issues, including pollution, which we discussed in the previous point.
- Distance: There are a number of areas throughout the entire world that deal with water scarcity because they just aren’t close to anywhere that has water. Areas that are considered to be desert, or areas that are secluded, may not have somewhere that the people can get water effectively.
- Drought: A drought is, in short, an area which is not getting enough rainfall to be able to sustain the life that is residing there. Some areas are in perpetual drought, whereas other areas may be dealing with a drought on occasion. Droughts are common all over the world, and there is little that can be done to prevent such things from happening.
- Governmental Access. In some countries, specifically those with dictatorships, the use of water may be strictly controlled by those in power, causing a scarcity for those who may be located in those areas of the world. These governments use it as a source of control over those that they are governing, which can be a huge problem.
Effects of Water Scarcity
- Lack of Access to Drinking Water: The biggest problem that happens when you have water scarcity is that people are not able to get fresh, clean drinking water. The human body can only go so long without water, and a lack of drinking water can result in a number of other problems, which we discuss below.
- Hunger: If there is no water that can be used in order to help water the crops, then you are going to have people that are going hungry. Animals will also die, which will result in a lack of meat as well. Water scarcity, in short, causes starvation to occur en masse for both people and animals that are located in the area.
- Lack of Education: Water scarcity makes it difficult for people to get the education that they need or that they deserve. Why? Mainly, because those children are either too sick to go to school (which we will discuss below), or they are working to help get water to the home and the family.
- Diseases: If you don’t have clean water access, then you will be more likely to get diseases from the water that you do have. Whether you’re drinking the water or using it for bathing, those diseases will get into the body and, in a number of cases, the people carrying those diseases will pass away.
- Sanitation Issues: Without access to clean water, there is no way to clean food, dishes, or people. When people are not given access to proper sanitation, disease (which we talked about above) ends up becoming much more of an issue than it would have been otherwise. It also causes mental health issues, including depression and anxiety.
- Poverty: All in all, people who are dealing with water scarcity are often stuck in poverty as well. These people are not able to get the resources that they need in order to be able to thrive, and instead are just barely surviving through these difficult times.
Solutions for Water Scarcity
- Education: There are plenty of opportunities out there that people can use in order to learn more about the world around them. By educating those who are not dealing with water scarcity, they can be in a position to help. Those who are dealing with it can get educated on how they can prevent the problem from becoming even worse in the future.
- Recycle Water: There are plenty of technologies out there that allow you to recycle rainwater and other water that you may be using in your home. Consider learning about how you can recycle water. Not only does it help to prevent scarcity, but it can save you some money as well.
- Advance Technology Related to Water Conservation: There has been a lot of work in the world of water conservation, but there is also a lot that needs to be done in order to ensure that the rest of the world is able to conserve water. Putting money and effort into conservation could be life saving.
- Improve Practices Related to Farming: Farming and irrigation are often a huge culprit when it comes to water scarcity. Because of that, we need to improve practices so that we don’t use as much water and those who are using water are using it to its fullest potential. Technology also needs to advance in this manner.
- Improve Sewage Systems: Clean drinking water starts with a good sewage system. Without proper sanitation, the water in an area becomes ridden with disease and any number of other problems. By improving the sewage systems in these areas, we can prevent water scarcity from becoming any worse.
- Support Clean Water Initiatives: There are organizations located all over the world that are looking to bring clean water to areas that don’t have it. Consider donating to these organizations, either with your time, your skills, or your finances (whichever you can afford to give to them).
So, as you can see, there are a lot of things that we need to consider when we’re looking at water scarcity and how we can deal with it. If we start to look at this issue as a whole, and we work hard to make sure that we are able to make a difference when it comes to this widespread issue, we’re going to be in a much better place to help people all over the world in preventing this issue from getting worse.
Image credit: Vinoth Chandar , World Bank Photo
Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.
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