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Shorea Leprosula Descriptive Essay

Shorea leprosula (also called Light Red Meranti or Meranti) is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand.

General description[edit]

Trees up to 60 meter high; approximate 100 cm in diameter; bark greyish brown, shallowly fissured, V-shaped. Outer bark dull purple brown, rather hard, brittle, inner bark fibrous, dull brown or yellowish brown grading to pale at the cambium, sapwood pale or cream, resinous, heartwood dark red or light red brown; leaves elliptic to ovate, 8–14 cm long, 3.5 to 5.5 cm wide, cream scaly, thinly leathery, base obtuse or broadly cuneate, apex acuminate, up to 8 mm long, secondary vein 12–15 pairs, slender, curved towards margin, set at 40 to 550, tertiary veins densely ladder-like, very slender, obscure expect in young tress; stipules 10 mm long, 35 mm wide, scars short, horizontal, obscure, oblong to broadly hastate, obtuse, fugacious, falling off early; Fruit pedicel to 2 mm long, calyx sparsely pubescent, 3 longer lobes up to 10 cm long, approximate 2 cm wide, spatulate, obtuse, approximate 5 mm broad above the 8 by 6 mm thickened elliptic, shallowly saccate base, 2 shorter lobes up to 5.5 cm long, approximate 0.3 cm wide, unequal, similarly saccate at base.[1][2][3]

Distribution[edit]

South East Asia rain forest; from Peninsular Thailand throughout the Malay Peninsula (excluding the seasonal area), Sumatera, Bangka and Belitung and Borneo.

Ecology[edit]

Shorea leprosula is one of the fastest growing species of Dipterocarp up to about its twentieth year, but it is later surpassed by other Dipterocarp species. Shorea leprosula can grow in a wide variety of site conditions with flat topography found throughout hilly areas, frequently found on well-drained soil, on deep clay soils or swampy soil in the mixed Dipterocarp forest of lowlands and hill up to 700 meter above sea level, but it is a strongly light-demanding species.[4][5][6][7]

One of the key success for Shorea leprosula planting is light control. Light control should correspond to the light requirements of a species during its growing stages, as well as planting methods should reflect site conditions and growth characteristics of the species. Shorea leprosula is a light-demanding species at the early stage, 60 to 73% (relative light intensity) for seedlings and 74 to 100% for saplings.[8][9]

Vernacular names[edit]

The trade name for Shorea leprosula is red meranti or meranti merah; Brunai and Sawarak: Meranti tembaga, perawan lop; Malaya and Sumatera: meranti betul, meranti bunga, meranti lempong, meranti tamak, meranti hijau, meranti sabut, merati kait, meranti sepang (Palembang); Kutai: Lampong, banti, barit, bekunsu, belaitok, belito, damar; Sampit: lentang; Dayang Benuag: Mengkorau.[10]

Propagation[edit]

Shorea leprosula can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and wildlings.

Uses[edit]

The wood is used for construction.

Sources[edit]

Notes[edit]

Shorea leprosula plantation in Samboja Lestari area
Shorea leprosula seedlings in nursery Samboja
Fruit of Shorea leprosula
Material herbarium of Shorea leprosula
  1. ^Keβler, P.J.A. and Sadiyasa, K., 1994. Trees of the Balikpapan-Samarinda Area, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. A manual to 280 selected species. Tropenbos series 7. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands. 446.pp
  2. ^Ashton, P.S., 1982. Diptrocarpaceae. In: Flora Malesiana Series I (sec. Mutica) Vol. 9 (2), 540–541
  3. ^Newman, M.F, Burgess, P.F., Whitmore, T.C., 2000. Manuals of Dipterocarps for Foresters: Borneo island light hardwoods. CIFOR and Royal Botanical Garden Eidinburgh. 275 pp.
  4. ^Aldrianto, P., 2002. Dipterocarpaceae: Forest Fire and Forest Recovery. Thesis Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 214 pp
  5. ^Meijer, W. and Wood, G.H.S., 1964. Dipterocarps of Sabah. Pp. 110-112. Sabah Forest Record No. 5. Forest Departement Sabah. Sandakan. 344.pp
  6. ^Yasman, I., 1995. Dipterocarpaceae: Tree-Mycorrhizae-Seedling connection. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agriculture University, the Netherlands. 193 pp
  7. ^Omon, R.M., 2002. Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula Miq. Cuttings, Mycorrhizae and Nutrients. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. 144 pp
  8. ^Aldrianto, P., 2002. Dipterocarpaceae: Forest Fire and Forest Recovery. Thesis Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 214 pp
  9. ^Ishak Yassir dan Yuniar Mytikauji. 2008. Pengaruh Penyiapan Lahan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Shorea Leprosula Miq., dan Shorea balangeran (Korth) Burck pada Lahan alang-alang di Samboja, Kalimantan Timur (Effect of land preparation on the growth of Shorea leprosula Miq., and Shorea balangeran (Korth) Burck on alang-alang areas in Samboja - East Kalimantan). Jurnal Penelitian Dipterokarpa. Balai Besar Diptercarpaceae Samarinda. Vol.I No. 1
  10. ^Ashton, P.S., 1982. Diptrocarpaceae. In: Flora Malesiana Series I (sec. Mutica) Vol. 9 (2), 540-541

 



Taxonomy [top]

KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamily
PlantaeTracheophytaMagnoliopsidaThealesDipterocarpaceae

Scientific Name:Shorea leprosula Miq.
Common Name(s):
EnglishLight Red Meranti, Meranti

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published:2017
Date Assessed:2017-03-10
Assessor(s):Pooma, R. & Newman, M.
Reviewer(s):Chua, L.S.L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s):Rivers, M.C.
Justification:
Shorea leprosula is a large tree species. It is native to Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The species is globally assessed as Near Threatened. The species is widespread and the population is still considered to be fairly large even though it has undergone a 20–29% reduction in the past three generations (210 years). This almost qualifies the species for threatened status under criterion A2cd. Decline is caused by logging of the species for timber and as part of forest clearance for agricultural expansion across the species range. These remain threats to the species so decline is likely to continue into the future but at a yet unknown rate. The genetic diversity of this species has been widely studied and it is still considered a genetically diverse species however as forest fragmentation and logging occurs this will decline. This is a risk to the species. This tree is found within protected areas across its range but is poorly represented in ex situ collections. It can also be found in in situ conservation stands. It is recommended that species population and habitat decline be monitored and further ex situ collections of the species be made.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is native to south east Asia. It is recorded from Peninsular Malaysia, Peninsular Thailand, the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra and also from Borneo. On Borneo the species is native to Kalimantan, Brunei Darussalam, Sabah and Sarawak. The species is found up to 1,000 m asl and it has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of over 2 million km2.
Countries occurrence:

Native:

Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Thailand
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a very common species across its native range. In Malaysia there are an estimated 7.4 million stems in reserve protected areas alone (Chua et al. 2010). The species is genetically diverse exhibiting high genetic diversity between populations and countries and even within populations (Ang et al. 2016, Cao et al. 2006). The species has a generation length of 70 years. Although population is large it has undergone a 20–29% reduction in the past three generations (210 years) due to logging and forest clearance.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large tree species can grow up to 60 m in height (Ashton 2004). It occurs within lowland, evergreen, mixed dipterocarp forests on well drained soils (Chua et al. 2010). It grows well on clay soils, in forests on clay or intermediate igneous rocks and periodically flooded alluvium. The species is absent on sandy soils (Ashton 2004). The species is predominantly outcrossing (Bawa 1998). The tree is light demanding and competitive and fast growing in its youth (Jøker 2002). It forms ectomycorrhizal associations in healthy forests which improves species survival (Lee 1998). The species flowers and fruits every 2–4 years from March to June (Krishnapillay et al. 1998) and is pollinated by thrips (Jøker 2002). Fruiting is delayed by dry spells (Jøker 2002). The species is often found in association with Shorea curtsii and parvifolia, with which it infrequently hybridises (Ghazoul et al. 2016). The species regenerates well in open forest and through thinning of surrounding species (Weinland 1998). It has a generation length of 70 years.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):70

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is used for its timber. It has the trade name light red meranti and is commercially valuable. Wood is used for joinery, furniture, panelling, flooring and plywood (Jøker 2002). The species is found in plantations within Malaysia and Indonesia (Weinland 1998). It is favoured as it is fast growing. Damar resin can also be collected from the trees which is used for medicinal purposes. The species bark is used for tannin production (Jøker 2002).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss as forests are cleared for agricultural space. It is also threatened by logging which has been shown to reduce the genetic diversity of the population as well as directly removing mature individuals (Ang et al. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is reported from three ex situ collections (BGCI 2017). Further ex situ collections of this species should be made. The species is also in protected areas across its range and in in situ conservation stands in Indonesia (Masripatin et al. 2003) and Malaysia (Lee et al. 2003). Within Malaysia the species is assessed as Least Concern (Chua et al. 2010). The species is considered vulnerable within Singapore (Chong et al. 2009) and has been identified as a conservation priority in Indonesia (Masripatin et al. 2003). The species is also frequently used in regeneration efforts (Weinland 1998). The species population decline and any further habitat lost should be monitored.

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